NQ2001ThaheldBioNonLocalAndConsciousConnecDeterminationExpts.html . http://redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/V08NO4PDF/V08N4THA.PDF

Proposed Experiments to Determine if There is a Connection Between Biological Nonlocality and Consciousness

Fred H. Thaheld
240 Natoma Station Dr. #76 Folsom, California 95630 USA
email: fthaheld@directcon.net
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract
Experiments are proposed based upon present research in an attempt to deal with the decades old question as to the possible
role consciousness plays in the discontinuous collapse of the wave-function. Other interrelated problem areas will be
investigated including the influence of mental events upon neuronal events, the entanglement of neurons in the brain and
the transference of conscious subjective experience, all from the standpoint of biological nonlocality between not only
human subjects but any living entity.
key words: biological nonlocality, induced evoked potential,photostimulation, measurement problem, neurons, Faraday
chamber, electroencephalogram.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Introduction
Analysis of experiments which have been conducted and which are ongoing, leads me to believe that a possible
solution to one or more of the so called ‘problems’ confronting us in the field of consciousness studies, may have already
been achieved. These are referred to as the ‘measurement’ problem, ‘binding’ problem, ‘reverse’ problem and the ‘transference of
conscious subjective experience’ problem. These experiments appear to lend credibility to the concept of biological nonlocality, which is
essential for the success of this analysis, and represents an extension of a proposal I made at the Tucson 2000 Consciousness Conference
[1]. This is also referred to as biological utilization of quantum nonlocality [2].
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.Duane-Behrendt Identical Twins Experiment

The researchers had noted that the nonscientific literature was replete with instances in which illness or trauma in one of a pair of
identical twins affects the other, even when they are far apart. They decided to alter the brain wave pattern of one twin, and see if this
would produce a similar response in the brain waves of the other twin.In this instance, the alpha rhythm was utilized, which are brain waves
of from 8-13 Hz and approximately 50 microvolts. The alpha rhythm can be elicited when a subject closes his eyes, stares at a uniform
unpatterned background or sits in the dark with her eyes open. Since eye closure in a lighted room elicits immediate and reproducible
results, it was chosen as the method for investigation.Identical twins were seated in separate rooms hooked up to EEG
machines to measure their brain waves. They were asked to leave their eyes open, until one was instructed to do otherwise. It was noted
that in 2 out of 15 pairs of twins tested in this instance, eye closure in one twin not only produced an immediate alpha rhythm in his brain
but, also in the brain of the other twin, even though he had kept his eyes open throughout this procedure. Under these conditions it is
highly unusual to see an alpha rhythm in the 2nd twin.Even though these experiments were not carried out in a Faraday
chamber, one could interpret the results as favoring biological nonlocality, since they were achieved without conventional classical
elicitation of an alpha rhythm in one twin, while it was being evoked under standard conditions in the other twin who had closed his eyes.
 I have since been informed by one of the researchers that they conducted additional experiments with 50 pairs of twins in which
they got not only correlated but, anti-correlated effects where the alpha rhythm could be enhanced, blocked out or overridden by the
recipient [8]. And, in which they were able to correlate the alpha rhythm of unrelated subjects!
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Grinberg-Zylberbaum EPR Experiment

Experiments were undertaken 30 years later by Grinberg-Zylberbaum, under much more stringent conditions,
to determine if nonlocal correlations might occur at complex levels such as the human brain [9].
These experiments tested the possibility of the existence of a transference of specific signals between two brains in a nonclassical
fashion.Unrelated pairs of subjects were allowed to meditate together until their brains’ EEGs displayed phase coherence.
Approximately 25% of the subjects attained what they called quantum correlation or direct communication.
The subjects were put into Faraday chambers attached to EEGs. One of the subjects was stimulated by a series of
unpatterned flashes of light from a photostimulator, which resulted in an evoked potential being elicited.
An evoked potential is a normal electrophysiological brain response produced by a sensory stimulus [10].
When the stimulated subjects showed a distinct evoked potential,similar potentials were found in 25% of the nonstimulated subjects,
which they called transferred potentials.With the use of photostimulation they were able to achieve a much more distinct and replicable evoked potential
than that obtained by merely closing one’s eyes. While both techniques revealed the same striking similarity regarding the brain waves being in phase
coherence, in neither case was there any transference of conscious subjective experience between the subjects.
I
have proposed that in addition to using subjects who have meditated together, that we can also rely upon identical twins and
other familial combinations whose brain waves already appear to be in phase coherence due to genetic factors [11].
There is a large body of literature dealing with not only the EEGs of identical twins but,fraternal twins, and mother/son, father/daughter,
etc. combinations [12-16].In addition, it appears that unrelated subjects may possess varying degrees of phase coherence as a result of
certain universal genetic factors and empathy. Analysis of both the Duane-Behrendt and Grinberg-Zylberbaum research, appears to reveal that
controllable biological quantum nonlocality may have been achieved at that time [17].
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. University of Washington NIH Study
A research project commenced last year at Bastyr University and the University of Washington, under a 2 year grant from the NIH, to
replicate the Grinberg-Zylberbaum experiments [18]. Their long term goal is to develop and utilize neurophysiological techniques to
evaluate hypotheses emerging from the field of mind-body medicine,specifically the possibility that conscious states can exert biological
effects at a distance.Selected pairs of subjects, who have been identified as possessing cross-correlated evoked potentials during
patterned photostimulation,are placed in Faraday chambers, along with separate EEGs, and just one of them is subjected to photostimulation.
It will then be determined if the nonstimulated subject displays a similar induced evoked potential as the stimulated subject.
In addition,they are also using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as a second independent neurophysiological measure of
transfer of information between two human brains.The author was asked to collaborate in the early phase of this project in light of a similar proposal
I had made at the Tucson 2000 Conference [1].
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.Magnetic Dipoles and Quantum Coherence in Muscle Contraction

Recent research indicates that an extremely minute aspect of biological quantum nonlocality has been observed in the coherence of
induced magnetic dipoles involved in muscle contraction [19]. The observed magnetization was robust against thermal fluctuations,
which should effectively deal with objections raised by some physicists, that biological quantum coherence and superposition is
impossible, due to ambient thermal considerations [20]. Compelling arguments have recently been advanced supporting quantum
coherence [21].

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. Biological Nonlocality and Problem Areas in Consciousness

A demonstration of biological nonlocality between the brains of human subjects, will enable us to examine in a fairly simple fashion,
several seemingly disparate problem areas presently confronting us in the field of consciousness studies, by utilizing these same
techniques with minor experimental modifications. This is based on the assumption that some or all of these areas might be interrelated
by virtue of biological nonlocality arising from neuronal quantum coherence and entanglement.
This would include:
a. The ‘measurement’ problem, which relates to the possible states of a system, characterized by state vectors, or wave-functions,
changing either continuously as a result of a passage of time, or discontinuously if a measurement is carried out on the system
[22-24]. In an attempt to get around this measurement problem, it was postulated that consciousness collapses the wave-function in a
discontinuous fashion, when a measurement is carried out on a system by a human subject [22-26]. In the proposed experiment,
the measurement is carried out by the use of patterned photostimulation on a subject, which gives rise to an evoked potential.
This is conveyed simultaneously in nonlocal fashion to the nonstimulated subject, where an induced evoked potential is elicited,
possessing a similar waveform. This means that we could be looking at the actual collapse of the wave-function in both of
the conscious subjects on a repetitive-regenerative level, based on the Hz of the photostimulation! In order to determine if the above
reasoning is correct it, is only necessary to place the nonstimulated subject under general anesthesia, where she is unconscious, and
seeing if an induced evoked potential still shows up in her EEG. If it does not, this would mean that collapse had taken place for the stimulated
conscious subject but, not for the unconscious subject. If it does,collapse is able to take place for both conscious and unconscious
subjects. An indication that the latter hypothesis may be correct is based on the fact that a visual evoked potential (VEP) can be
elicited from a subject whose eyes are closed and is asleep. A more detailed series of experiments concerning the measurement
problem have also been proposed by the author [27].

b. The ‘reverse direction’ problem, or whether mental events can influence or control neuronal events, since we already know that
the opposite is true, that cerebral events or processes can influence,control and presumably ‘produce’ mental events, including
conscious ones [28]. Analysis reveals that this may have already been demonstrated in the experiments of Grinberg-Zylberbaum,
when a transferred potential was elicited in the EEG of the nonstimulated subject. Since both subjects were in Faraday chambers,
no neural or electromagnetic energy could penetrate such an arrangement. If the ongoing experiments at the University of Washington
replicate this finding in a robust fashion, this will help to confirm my hypothesis. This may be further demonstrated,if there is a concomitant
transference of conscious subjective experience from the photostimulated subject to the nonstimulated subject, reflecting the type of patterned
photostimulation that is being used, based upon an introspective report by the nonstimulated subject, while both of them are in Faraday
chambers.

c. The ‘binding’ problem, or how it is that the brain can fuse together the many disparate features of a complex perception [29,30]. I.e.,
what mechanism transforms the firing of neurons in numerous areas of the brain into a unified experience? In this instance we could be dealing
with a large number of neurons which are entangled, and relying upon this connectivity which would be inherent in biological nonlocality [30].
It would appear that the binding problem and reverse direction problem are inextricably linked, since any solely mental stimulus would have to be
nonlocal. I have also attempted to deal with this matter of quantum coherence at the individual neuronal level [31].

d. The problem concerning ‘transference of conscious subjective experience’, and whether this can be transferred from the photostimulated
subject having this experience, to a nonstimulated subject [29]. Once again this may be demonstrated if the nonstimulated subject is
able to give an introspective report about‘seeing’ some modicum of the pattern that is being used, while an induced evoked potential is being
elicited in her brain. This would also have a direct relationship to the binding problem and the reverse direction problem.

I have chosen to not directly address the question of the Neural Correlates of Consciousness (NCC), which is supposedly a specific
system in the brain whose activity correlates directly with states of conscious experience [32]. It can be readily seen that the NCC may be
intimately intertwined with one or more of the above items. A solution to this problem may lie in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI analysis, coupled
with the nonstimulated subject being awake in one experiment and under general anesthesia in another. The same rationale applies to the
‘hard’ problem, or that of understanding the nature of the conscious experience [33].
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in lieu of patterned photostimulation

In addition to the use of patterned photostimulation, I have also suggested that TMS might be used [34]. This is a non-invasive
technique of directly stimulating the human cortex using a pulsed magnetic field without any discomfort to the subject and requiring no
direct contact with the scalp [35]. This selective stimulation of different cortical areas can be correlated with a measured external
response, such as an evoked motor potential in a particular muscle group such as the hand or leg. In addition, subjects also report
phosphemes (the sensation of light) in darkness as a result of TMS over the occiput.TMS could be administered to a stimulated subject, giving rise to
either an evoked motor potential in a particular muscle group or the appearance of phosphemes. We would then want to see if these same
motor potentials or phosphemes are elicited in the nonstimulated subject, in a similar manner as the induced evoked potentials.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. Future Potential: Animal Consciousness
NOT USEFUL
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9. Conclusion

One can surmise that the preliminary experiments at the University of Washington have been successful so far, based upon data which they
have made public. First, an analysis of the title of a paper listed at the annual Society for Scientific Exploration (SSE) Conference,Nonlocal
induction of evoked potentials via fMRI’. Second, an interim report submitted to the NIH in which preliminary data from the neural energy
transfer (NET) study suggests that a transfer of visual evoked potentials may be possible. The repeated appearance of induced evoked potentials
from a large subject base would lend support to the hypotheses I have advanced in the following areas:

a. That biological nonlocality was observed, if both subjects were in Faraday chambers and/or separated by several km [1].
b. Collapse of the wave-function was also observed in a biological system, on a repetitive-regenerative basis, obeying the
conservation law of energy between two human subjects, if there was no back reaction, thereby providing us with a possible answer
to the ‘measurement’ problem.
c. It appears that it was also demonstrated that mental events can influence or control neuronal events, or what is referred to as the
‘reverse direction’ problem, since neither neural or electromagnetic energy could have penetrated two Faraday chambers [1].
d. That the induced evoked potentials could represent a rudimentary indication of the transference of conscious subjective experience,
which might be determined by utilizing different patterns for photostimulation [1].
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Acknowledgment
I would like to thank the referee for his comments regarding this paper and also Thesa von Hohenastenberg-Wigandt for discussions
and suggestions concerning the basic concepts involved.References

[1] F.H. Thaheld, “The search for biological quantum nonlocality,” Abstract
No.393, Tucson 2000 Consciousness Conference.
http://www.imprint.co.uk/Tucson2000.
Apeiron, Vol. 8, No. 4, October 2001 64
© 2001 C. Roy Keys Inc.
[2] B.D. Josephson and F. Pallikari-Viras, “Biological utilization of quantum
nonlocality,” Found. Phys. 21, (1991) 197-207.
[3] T.D. Duane and T. Behrendt, “Extrasensory electroencephalographic
induction between identical twins,” Science. 150, (1965) 367.
[4] J.S. Bell, “On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox,” Physics. 1, (1964) 195-
200.
[5] A. Einstein, B. Podolsky and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description
of physical reality be considered complete?,” Phys. Rev. 47, (1935) 777-780.
[6] A. Aspect, J. Dalibard and G. Roger, “Experimental test of Bell’s inequalities
using time-varying analyzers ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, (1982) 1804-1807.
[7] R.P. Feynman, “Simulating physics with computers ,” Int. J. Theor. Physics.
21, (1982) 467-488.
[8] T. Behrendt, personal communication, Jan 2000.
[9] J. Grinberg-Zylberbaum, M. Delaflor, L. Attie and A. Goswami, “The
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the brain: The transferred potential,”
Physics Essays. 7, (1994) 422-428.
[10] G.G. Celesia, “Visual evoked potentials and electroretinograms ,” Ch. 51,
Electro - encephalography: Basic Principles, Clinical Applications and
Related Fields. ed. E. Niedermeyer and F.L. da Silva. Williams and Wilkins.
(1993), 911 pp.
[11] F.H. Thaheld, “A proposed experiment concerning nonlocal correlations
between a quantum observer and another person,” Physics Essays. 11, (1998)
422-425.
[12] W. Grey Walter, Electroencephalography - A Symposium on its Various
Aspects MacMillan. (1950) p.203-227.
[13] G.C. van Baal, E.J. De Geus and D.I. Boomsma, “Genetic architecture of EEG
power spectra in early life,” Electroencephalography and Clinical
Neurophysiology. 98 (6), (1996) 502-514.
[14] N.E. Sviderskata and T.A. Korol’kova, “Genetic features of the spatial
organization of the human cerebral cortex,” Neuroscience and Behavioral
Physiology. 25 (5), (1995) 370-377.
[15] H.H. Stassen, G. Bomben and P. Propping, “Genetic aspects of the EEG: An
investigation into the within-pair similarity of monozygotic and dizygotic
twins with a new method of analysis ,” Electroencephalography and Clinical
Neurophysiology. 66 (6), (1987) 489-501.
Apeiron, Vol. 8, No. 4, October 2001 65
© 2001 C. Roy Keys Inc.
[16] A.B. Gottlober, “The inheritance of brain potential patterns,” J. Exp. Psychol.
22, (1938) 193-200.
[17] F.H. Thaheld, “A preliminary indication of controllable biological quantum
nonlocality?,” Apeiron. 8 (1), (Jan 2001). http://redshift.vif.com.
[18] T.L. Richards and L.J. Standish, “EEG coherence and visual evoked
potentials: Investigation of neural energy transfer between human subjects ,”
Abstract No. 393, Tucson 2000 Consciousness Conference.
http://www.imprint.co.uk/Tucson2000.
[19] K. Hatori, H. Honda and K. Matsuno, “Magnetic dipoles and quantum
coherence in muscle contraction,” quant-ph/0104042. (9 Apr 2001).
[20] M. Tegmark, “The importance of quantum decoherence in brain processes ,”
quant-ph/9907009. (10 Nov 1999).
[21] S. Hagan, S.R. Hameroff and J.A. Tuszynski, “Quantum computation in brain
microtubules? Decoherence and biological feasibility,” quant-ph/0005025. (4
May 2000).
[22] J. von Neumann, Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics,
Princeton University Press. (1955).
[23] E.P. Wigner, “The problem of measurement,” Am. J. Physics. 31, (1963) 6-15.
[24] A. Shimony, “Role of the observer in quantum theory ,” Am. J. Physics. 31,
(1963) 755-773.
[25] F. London and E. Bauer, in Quantum Theory and Measurement, ed. J.A.
Wheeler and W.H. Zurek. Princeton University Press. (1983).
[26] E.P. Wigner, in Quantum Theory and Measurement, ed. J.A. Wheeler and
W.H. Zurek. (translation by J.D. Trimmer) Princeton University Press. (1983).
[27] F.H. Thaheld, “A feasible experiment concerning the Schroedinger’s cat and
Wigner’s friend paradoxes,” Submitted to Physics Essays. (2001).
[28] B. Libet, “A testable field theory of mind-brain interaction,” J. Consciousness
Studies. 1 (1), (1994) 119-126.
[29] A. Scott, Stairway to the Mind, Springer-Verlag. (1995).
[30] R. Penrose, Shadows of the Mind, Oxford University Press. (1994).
[31] F.H. Thaheld, “Proposed experiment to determine if there are EPR nonlocal
correlations between 2 neuron transistors ,” Apeiron. 7 (3-4), (2000) 202-206.
[32] D.J. Chalmers, The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory,
Oxford University Press. (1996).
Apeiron, Vol. 8, No. 4, October 2001 66
© 2001 C. Roy Keys Inc.
[33] D.J. Chalmers, “Facing up to the problem of consciousness.” In Toward a
Science of Consciousness, ed. S.R. Hameroff, A.W. Kaszniak and A.C. Scott
MIT Press. (1995).
[34] F.H. Thaheld, “Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation,” Quantum-Mind Digest.
http://listserv.arizona.edu/lsv/www/quantum-mind.html. (8 Nov 1999).
[35] A.T. Barker, R. Jalinous and I.I. Freeston, “Non-invasive magnetic stimulation
of human motor cortex,” Lancet. 1, (1985) 1106-1108.
[36] K. Marten and S. Psarakos, “Using self-view television to distinguish between
self-examination and social behavior in the bottlenose dolphin” (Tursiops
truncatus), Consciousness and Cognition. 4 (2), (1995) 205-224.
[37] F.H. Thaheld, “A method to explore the possibility of nonlocal
communication between animals and humans” Submitted to Consciousness
and Cognition. (June 2001).
[38] S.R. Hameroff and R. Penrose, “Conscious events as orchestrated space-time
selections,” J. Consciousness Studies. 3 (1), (1996) 36-53.
[39] F.H. Thaheld, “Are Paramecia conscious?,” Quantum-Mind Digest. (20 Aug
1998). http://listserv.arizona.edu/lsv/www/quantum-mind.html
[40] J. Wolken, Euglena: An Experimental Organism for Biochemical and
Biophysical Studies, Meredith Publishing Co. (1967).
Presented at the Toward A Science of Consciousness Conference -
Consciousness and Its Place in Nature. 7-11 Aug 2001. Skovde,
Sweden.