J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Apr;10(2):307-14 


Electroencephalographic evidence of correlated event-related signals between the brains of spatially and sensory isolated human subjects.

Standish LJ       http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Standish%20LJ%22%5BAuthor%5D  ljs@bastyr.edu
]Kozak L           http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Kozak%20L%22%5BAuthor%5D
Johnson LC    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Johnson%20LC%22%5BAuthor%5D  cjohnson@u.washington.edu
 Richards T     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Richards%20T%22%5BAuthor%5D   toddr@u.washington.edu

Source--Bastyr University/University of Washington Consciousness Science Laboratory, Bastyr University, Kenmore, WA 98028, USA. ljs@bastyr.edu


OBJECTIVE:-To determine whether correlated event-related potentials (ERPs) can be detected between the brains of spatially and sensory isolated human subjects.

DESIGN AND SETTING:---Simultaneous digitized electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded from the occipital area in pairs of human subjects placed in sound attenuated rooms separated by 10 meters. One person relaxed in one of the rooms while the other received visual stimulation while in the other room. Prior to each experiment, members of the pair were randomly designated as sender and receiver. Sessions were subsequently repeated with subjects reversing their roles. Previous to each session, the sender was instructed "to attempt sending an image/thought." The receiver was instructed "to remain open to receive any image/thought from his/her partner." Alternating stimulus-on/stimulus-off conditions were presented throughout the session to the sender, while a stimulus-off condition was presented to the receiver.

SUBJECTS:---Thirty-seven (37) female, and 23 male subjects (n = 60; 30 pairs) participated in the study. Subjects knew each other well and claimed to have previous experience of being emotionally/psychologically connected to one another.

OUTCOME MEASURES:---A Runs test was applied to compare EEG "hits" in the receiver's EEG during the sender' stimulus-on condition versus sender's stimulus-off conditions. Test results at p < 0.01 were considered evidence of correlated brain signals. Pairs in whom at least one member had significant results were invited back for replication.

RESULTS:---Of the 60 subjects tested, 5 (4 women/1 man) showed significantly higher brain activation (p < 0.01) during their sending partner's stimulus-on condition as compared to stimulus-off condition. Using the Stouffer z meta-analytic method all receiver EEG results across all 60 subjects were combined by transforming the individual session p values into z scores. Data analyses showed overall significant results for EEG data recorded during the flickering condition (z =-3.28, p = 0.0005) as well as nonsignificant results for data recorded during the static condition (z = 0.35, p = 0.64). Four pairs participated in a replication experiment during which one pair replicated the effect.

CONCLUSIONS:---These results indicate that in some pairs of human subjects a signal may be detected in the brain of a distant member of the pair when the brain of the other member is visually stimulated. These data support the findings of similar studies performed in seven laboratories reported in the peer-reviewed literature since 1963. Research in this area should now proceed with investigation of its physical and biologic mechanism, its generalizability to varying populations and relationships, and its clinical application.


J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Dec;11(6):955-63.

Replicable functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence of correlated brain signals between physically and sensory isolated subjects.


Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.



Previous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have suggested that correlated neural signals may be detected in the brains of individuals who are physically and sensorily isolated from each other. Functional MRI and EEG methods were used in the present study in an attempt to replicate these findings.

 DESIGN/SETTINGS: Subjects were electrically and magnetically shielded because of the characteristic surroundings of the scanner room. During the experiment, the nonstimulated subject was placed in the scanner with sensory isolating goggles covering the subject's eyes. The stimulated subject was placed 30 feet away and sat in front of a video monitor that presented an alternating schedule of six stimulus-on/stimulus-off conditions. The stimulus- on condition consisted of a flickering checkerboard pattern whereas the stimulus-off condition consisted of a static checkerboard. Stimulus-on/-off conditions were presented in the sequence on/off/on/off/on/off. The duration of these intervals was randomly assigned but consistently provided a total of 150 seconds of flicker and 150 seconds of static. Sessions were repeated twice to assess possible replication of the phenomenon.


Changes in fMRI brain activation (relating to blood oxygenation) and EEG signals were measured in the nonstimulated subjects. Changes occurring during stimulus-on conditions were statistically compared to changes occurring during the stimulus-off conditions.


Statistically significant changes in fMRI brain activation and EEG signals were observed when comparing the stimulus-on condition to the stimulus-off condition in nonstimulated subjects (p < 0.001, corrected for multiple comparisons). For fMRI, these changes were observed in visual brain areas 18 and 19 (Brodmann areas). One of the subjects replicated the results.


These data replicate previous findings suggesting that correlated neural signals may be detected by fMRI and EEG in the brains of subjects who are physically and sensorily isolated from each other.


Evidence for correlations between distant intentionality and brain function in recipients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis.


Earl and Doris Bakken Foundation, North Hawaii Community Hospital, Kamuela, HI 95743, USA. jeannieach@aol.com


This study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, demonstrated that distant intentionality (DI), defined as sending thoughts at a distance, is correlated with an activation of certain brain functions in the recipients. Eleven healers who espoused some form for connecting or healing at a distance were recruited from the island of Hawaii. Each healer selected a person with whom they felt a special connection as a recipient for DI. The recipient was placed